You expect Beckett to provide a critical analysis of education policy, and this is what he does in The Great City Academy Fraud. It is a critique of Labour’s Academy programme, examining the reality behind the spin. While some of the arguments against Acadmies and their performance might be found elsewhere, this is a useful source which tells the stories of some Acadmies, and, it gives us a glimpse of how schools might look in the future with more involvement from businesses.
This book is not new, having being published in 2007. Since then, of course, there has been a General Election. Labour, who were responsible for City Academies are no longer in power. However, Beckett’s analysis of City Academies remains an important contribution to debates on school provision, especially so in the context of the Conservatives’ proposed Free Schools.
Academies were introduced by the last Labour Government as a part of their committment to improve educational standards. Designed to replace ‘failing’ schools, particularly in deprived inner city areas, Academies would be sponsored, by businesses, faith groups, individuals, or charities. These sponsors were expected to contribute £2 million to the cost of setting up an Academy, estimated at £10 million. Academies would be outside of the control of LEAs, with running costs payed by the Government.
The book begins by comparing Academies with City Technology Colleges (CTCs). These were created by the last Conservative Government in the 1980’s. They were to be sponsored by and owned by businesses or churches and were to be independent from LEAs. As they were targeted in deprived urban areas, they were, in particular to be independent from Labour controlled councils. CTCs were not a success, there was limited interest from any big sponsors, and money was often not forthcoming from those sponsors who did get involved. In order to prop up the policy, the state then had to fund the CTCs, which had not been the attention. Additionally, CTCs were more generously funded than other state schools. The policy was quietly dropped.
At the time, Labour did not support CTCs, promising to take them back into LEA control if they got into power. They did, of course, get into power, in 1997. However, in 2000 the Labour Government announced the City Academy programme.
Beckett sees little distinction between CTCs and Academies. The mistakes of the CTCs, he claims, were destined to be repeated, the lessons of the failed CTCs not learned.
While Academies were designed to replace ‘failing’ schools, Beckett argues that many schools which were closed, were not, in fact, failing schools, at least by the assessment of Ofsted. Beckett takes apart the political claims for Academies. In terms of private sponsorship, only small proportions of the escalating costs of Academies has come from sponsors, and some sponsorship is ‘in kind’, yet the so-called sponsors still own and control the schools while the state continues to fund them. Then there has been allegations of honours in exchange for so-called sponsorship. He discusses concerns over the involvement of and motivation of religious organisations. Unions have been sidelined and timetables changed, with the effect that pupils and teachers don’t get to interact outside the classroom. The buildings too come under scrutiny as not being fit for purpose. All of this could be overlooked, perhaps, if Academies were shown to work. Beckett however shows that this has not always been the case, some of the schools they replaced were not failing anyway, and in some Academies attainment has fallen, while others have received damning Ofsted reports. Where attainment has risen, it is alleged that this is because Acadmies are using GCSE equivalents to ensure they rise in the league tables. Yet, they have continued to receive generous state funding; if these had been ordinary state comprehensive schools, they would have been closed, and replaced by Academies, according to Beckett.
Beckett’s analysis does have implications for the Conservative’s Free Schools. These can be started by parents, but in reality are likely to be run by businesses or other organisations. If they are to be a flagship education policy of the current Government then the pattern from the Academies is likely to be repeated. They will require generous funding from the Government at the expense of other local state schools. The businesses, religious organisations or charities which are contracted to run them will have great control over what goes on inside them (not the parents, despite the Conservative promises) yet there will be very little accountability. The result will be, as Beckett has claimed to have been the case with Acadmies, will be increased educational inequality.
The Great City Academy Fraud is published by Continuum.