BBC Four have just finished broadcasting a two-part series The Grammar School: A Secret History. Both episodes can be accessed via the BBC programmes page. I found the series less than illuminating, and not as analytical as it could, or should have been.
The narrative of episode two focused on “the golden age of grammar schools” indicating a particular, positive view of this type of secondary school. Far from being a secret history this episode repeated several common sense assumptions about the opportunities grammar schools gave to working class children, as well as the turn towards comprehensivisation.
A number of problematic phrases stood out:
“Grammar schools offered talented children from the poorest backgrounds the chance to go to some of the best schools in the country”
Talent in this content clearly refers to academic talent. It assumes that the 11+ was effective at identifying talent in children, and implies that only talented children from the poorest backgrounds deserve a chance to go to the best schools. It says nothing about middle class children, do they automatically go to “some of the best schools”?
“The grammar schools created a generation of upwardly mobile high-flyers who helped transform Britain”
This suggests that the grammar school system created social mobility. Evidence suggests otherwise. Middle class children were more likely to enter grammar schools, and once there, a middle class pupil was more likely to succeed than a working class pupil (Halsey and Gardner 1953; Little and Westergaard, 1964; Lacey, 1971). True, the post-war years saw some upward mobility, but it also saw a change in the occupational structure, with an expansion of professional (middle class jobs) and a contraction of manual (working class jobs).
The mobility claims are less firm when considering the overall numbers of pupils educated in grammar schools. As the narrator went on to state, they:
“educated a quarter of all secondary school pupils”
Can a “golden age” really be claimed for a system which excluded 75% of all pupils? Even this “quarter” figure is misleading as grammar school places were not evenly distributed across the nation. You had more chance of getting to grammar school in Wales than in parts of England. The rationale for selection to a grammar school is that a pupil is suited for a grammar school education, in other words the 11+ identifies the possession of academic talent. How then can the uneven distribution of grammar schools places be explained? Were Welsh children more academically gifted than English children?
The episode went on to describe how grammar schools would compensate working class children for the
“cultural impoverishment of home”
which, not only is this offensive, suggesting that working class culture is impoverished compared to the middle class culture of the grammar schools, it was immediately contradicted by the vignettes of working class ex-grammar school pupils whose families clearly valued education and aspired to greater educational opportunities. The programme makers have apparently, not read Nell Keddie’s Tinker Tailor.
Then, the programme moved on to the demise of the grammar schools, which, we were invited to believe is lamentable. It was all the fault of
“The Labour Government [who] persuaded and pressured them to go comprehensive”
How much persuading, and pressuring did LEAs need? True, there was the famous circular 10/65 which hardly compelled LEAs to go comprehensive. This programme did briefly refer to middle-class dissatisfaction with the 11+ plus system, but said nothing of the economic rationale for comprehensivisation. When Margaret Thatcher was Secretary of State for Education, Circular 10/70 attempted to stop plans for comprehensivisation, however LEAs continued submitting such plans, and more comprehensive schools were created. It was hardly a case of a Labour Government forcing comprehensive schooling on unwilling LEAs. None of this was mentioned.
The narration went on to describe
which probably refers to the 1976 Education Act, which was repealed in 1979, meaning comprehensivisation wasn’t enforced.
The Grammar School: A Secret History was an interesting attempt at illuminating the history of secondary education, but it could do better.
Halsey, A. H. and Gardner, L. (1953) ‘ Selection for Secondary Education and Achievement in Four Grammar Schools’, The British Journal of Sociology, 4, 1, 60-75
Keddie, N (1973) Tinker, tailor: the myth of cultural deprivation, Harmondsworth: Penguin
Lacey, C (1971) Hightown Grammar: the school as a social system, Manchester: Manchester University Press
Little, A and Westergaard, J (1964) ‘The Trend of Class Differentials in Educational Opportunity in England and Wales, The British Journal of Sociology, 15, 4, 301-316