In a survey of parents carried out for the Times Educational Supplement (TES), almost half backed a return to the use of corporal punishment in schools. What is understood as corporal punishment however, is not immediately obvious. While 49% of parents supported a return to corporal punishment, this figure dropped to 40% when asked specifically about smacking or caning. Presumably, some methods of assaulting children are considered more acceptable than others.
Alternative forms of discipline, which don’t involve physical assault were more popular still (such as detentions, and exclusions), with 77% of parents supporting ‘writing lines’ as a punishment.
These findings are likely to be used by the current Government as justification for strengthening the discipline powers available to teachers in schools. It is fair to say that the current Department for Education are keen on discipline. In the last few months the DFE has issued new advice on the Screening, searching and confiscation of pupils, advice on the Use of reasonable force, as well as a Guide for heads and school staff on behaviour and discipline.
Such advice is likely to appeal to popular concerns over behaviour and discipline in schools where there is a perception that schools throughout the land are populated by badly behaved children, and, where it is perceived staff and governors are powerless to act.
The Education Bill, currently proceeding through Parliament is intended to be a part of the solution. It gives head teachers and schools new powers, or freedoms, regarding discipline.
Schools will no longer be required to give written notice to parents, of a detention outside of school hours. In other words, schools have the power to control the whereabouts of a pupil who has misbehaved, after school has finished. This will appear as common sense to those who believe in tougher discipline, but the consequences of such action are potentially serious. For some pupils, remaining at school for a detention may amount to little more than an inconvenience. For some, the impact is likely to be significant, for example, those who rely on public transport, or those who are carers. It short, it will hit the poor and vulnerable most.
There is a clear ideology behind this policy shift. As Secretary of State for Education, Michael Gove said at the Durand Academy:
“The right every child deserves to be taught properly is currently undermined by the twisting of rights by a minority who need to be taught an unambiguous lesson in who’s boss.”
Improved discipline is just as much about learning your place, as it is about tackling inappropriate behaviour.
Exclusion appeal panels will be replaced with review panels. Unlike appeal panels, review panels will not have the power to force a school to reinstate an excluded pupil, though they can recommend that a school reconsider its decision. This gives autonomy to the school, but, a review panel cannot hold a school to account. Mistakes are made, and, in these cases children may not be readmitted. This goes against notions of natural justice and in inequitable. Children may not appeal against a decision to exclude them, but no doubt a teacher retains the right to appeal against dismissal. Again, it is about showing unruly children who is boss.
For schools, this apparent new freedom to impose discipline may not be that free after all. The DfE is running a pilot on a new approach to tackling permanent exclusions. In this pilot schools will be responsible for funding alternative provision for those pupils they permanently exclude. Further, the performance of those excluded pupils will be recorded in the performance tables of the excluding school. So, there will be consequences for the school, even after the school has exercised its freedom in excluding a pupil.
Pupils who are permanently excluded are often educated in a Pupil Referral Unit, where the cost of education is approximately four times that of mainstream provision. Greater freedoms to exclude, maybe, but this also seems like a greater disincentive to exclude.
While a decision to exclude should be a last resort, there may be serious consequences for other pupils and teachers of retaining a disruptive pupil who would be best served with alternative provision.
By shifting responsibility on to schools, in the name of autonomy and freedom, you shift the cost, and the responsibility. While the promises of improved behaviour in schools appeals to populist concerns, what is of greater concern is the ideology revealed by these promises.
1. Education Committee (2011) Behaviour and Discipline in Schools, http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201011/cmselect/cmeduc/516/51610.htm